The History of the Internet
The origin of the Internet can be found in the concept of the “Galactic Network” that J.C.R. Licklider used in a debate in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Licklider used this expression to define a network where anyone, anywhere all over the world can transfer and share information. Licklider was then, in 1962, placed at the head of operations in the American Militaries DARPA computer research program. Researchers at MIT, Lawrence Roberts and Thomas Merrill, were able to get two computers to ‘communicate’ for the first time in 1965.
Towards the end of 1966, Roberts started work at DARPA and proposed the ARPANET project. Using the ARPANET framework they were able to make a connection with four hubs, this was the Internet in its first form. The first four hubs of the Internet were UCLA, SRI, University of Utah and University of California at Santa Barbara (USCB).
In a very short time, many computers connected to the ARPANET network.
In the year 1971, it started to work with a protocol called Network Control Protocol or NCP. A successful demonstration of the system was realized in 1972, at the International Computer Communications Conference- the ICCC. Also in this same year, e-mail s=came into usage within ARPANET.
A new protocol came out that allowed for more possibilities than NCP. On 1 January, 1983 TCP/IP came into usage within ARPANET. TCP/IP is the Internet Networks main link today.
The Department of Defense computer network removed itself from ARPANET and made its own network called MILITARY NET. The NSF (National Science Foundation) made a proposal for a comprehensive packet that included 5 super computer centers across the country. ARPANET and the US government subsidies combined forces to make NSFNET. In 1987, the proposed restructuring of the Internet was a plan that was to put 1.5 mb/s connections in 7 different regional locations to fully strengthen the foundation of the Internet.
An agreement made between Michigan State University and NSF was called NSFNET Merit. In a short time, IBM and the intercommunication company MCI joined in.This alliance made in 1990 with the aim of running NSFNET was named ANS- Advanced Network Services. ANS was the starting point for the government owned Internet to spread and become privatized.
In the year 1990, NSFNET and privately owned companies made agreements to privatize the Internet and this process ended in 1995 when NSF pulled out of the Internet completely. Since 1995 the backbone of Internet operations has been privately owned.
By the end of 1994, there had been more than 110 countries, 10,100 computer networks, more than 3,000,000 computers and 25,000,000 users of the Internet. This number would then explode in 1995 all the way up to 60 million. In 1996 it was expected for this to rise by 10% every month. And currently there are more than 400 million users worldwide. It is able to reach all the corners of the earth, be they near or far. Right now it is the biggest tool of communications and advertisement on the planet.